When I first went to university, I was unsure what I wanted to major in. I had been considering chemistry, because I fancied that I might be the person to come up with a cure for AIDS. At the idealistic age of 18, I was so sure that I could use the colorful magic of gas chromatography to come up with a solution that many experienced scientists with doctoral degrees had been unable to discover. I signed up for a chemistry class and, I decided to take an elective in economics. I was hooked after my first class and ended up majoring in economics. I was fascinated by various theories and the push and pull between fiscal and monetary policies. I did come away from my class knowing one thing – I wanted to work for the Federal Reserve System, home of US monetary policy. To me, to be part of an organization that was focused on what to do in order to best positively influence the economy of the entire nation was awesome! Federal Reserve Banks issue the money that we use; how cool is that? I remember going to a campus career fair and spending most of my time there chatting with a representative from the Fed. Following that conversation, getting a job at the Fed was my dream. One big obstacle stood in my way; at the time, I was not a US citizen. I was devastated but I still dreamt that one day I would either be a citizen or the Fed would change its policies, whichever came first. At the time, as an economist in training, my dream was to be an analyst.
As time has gone by (I am a citizen now) and I have gone on to add becoming a CPA and then getting Certified in Financial Forensics to my skill set, my interest in the Fed and what it does has grown. After graduating, with my degree in economics and mathematics, I went on to work at a bank, where I was an analyst. I was very excited about the opportunity to apply the theory I had learnt in college. I had not bargained on how people are not very good at following the rules, be they the rules of logic or the rule of law. I mean, how many times have you said, “Who would do that,” or “Why did they act that way? It doesn’t make sense”? Yep, we humans use our free will in the nuttiest ways. Just last week, I read a crazy story about a Georgia woman filing a tax return for a $94 million dollar refund. Every aspect of the story is insane, from her 100 dependents to thinking that she could pick up her refund check at a local Kroger grocery store, and yet she is neither the first or last person to attempt this kind of thing. So, after the monetary policy folks have come up with their ideas about how best to influence the economy, there need to be the people who make sure that people are not breaking the rules and people who create control systems and audit them to minimize the risk of people breaking the rules. This is where forensic accountants come into play at the Fed.
Forensic Accountants, both those Certified in Financial Forensics and those who are Certified Fraud Examiners, can be found in the audit and enforcement areas of the Federal Reserve System. The saying is that love makes the world go around, but we are all aware that money is a big motivator for who many people behave. I have written about the fraud triangle and how people in positions of trust and authority will break the law in pursuit of illicit gain. With this in mind, it is vital to assess and improve control systems to make sure that, starting at the top financial institution, there is little opportunity for those who feel the pressure to commit financial crime. If the top bank cannot keep money safe, what hope is there for the rest of them? The Fed has bank examiners whose goal is to ensure that banks comply with laws such as those governing anti-money laundering and doing business with nations and people that the US government has imposed sanctions upon. The Fed plays an important role as an independent third party that will objectively assess operations at the banks that they supervise to make sure that they are not, for example, helping criminal rings hide their ill-gotten gains.
There are twelve banks in the Federal Reserve System and each bill of paper money that you have incorporates, in its serial number, the letter assigned to bank that issued that bill. Pull out a banknote, be it a dollar or a $100 bill, it will have the letter of the particular Federal Reserve Bank that issued it, be it Boston, San Francisco or any of the ones in between. In the case of the dollar bill, the name of the issuing bank is also noted on the bill. It goes almost without saying that the institution that issues the money that we use should have top notch controls. Each Federal Reserve Bank, therefore, has audit departments that are constantly reviewing it and making sure that the banks are complying with the rules. The auditors also work to improve systems. Every day, people are spending a lot of time and energy trying to figure out how to game the system and so those at the Fed should spend at least as much time and energy working to keep the banks safe and compliant.
Though my focus has changed, my excitement when it comes to the Fed is unabated. Not only are they working on monetary policy, they are also working to make sure that the rules are not being broken and that the opportunity to defraud, steal or abet crime is diminished. Take a look at the money in your wallet and think about what goes into making it worth what it is worth.