Tag Archives: Technology

Makes You WannaCry

ransomware

A couple of years ago a lawyer friend told me about clients who were coming to her office, panicked because their computers had been locked by parties claiming to be the FBI. In order to get their machines unlocked, these fake FBI agents demanded to be paid a ransom. On Friday, over 200,000 machines were locked by people (I assume it was more than one person) who did not even pretend to be good. They encrypted the information on these machines and demanded $300 to $600 per machine or, they threatened, all the data on those machines would be destroyed. This type of attack is called a ransomware attack. A program is introduced into the machine, and it locks and encrypts all the data on the machine. A message pops up on the infected machine demanding that money be paid, almost always via bitcoin. Once the ransom has been paid, the message says, a method to unlock the machine will be sent. If the ransom is not paid within the time demanded, all the data on the machine will be erased. So much of our lives, both personal and business, is stored on computers; can you imagine what would happen if your computer was locked? The mere thought makes my heart speed up.

Earlier this year, a hacker crew called Shadow Brokers released several tools used by the National Security Agency (NSA). Among these tools was one called EternalBlue and this tool exploited a flaw in Microsoft Windows. Armed with the information that was leaked, Microsoft created a patch to fix this flaw and released this patch in March. Perhaps you have now read this far and you are wondering, if the patch was released in March, how did this massive attack happen in May? How many times has a message popped up on your machine while you are in the middle of something. The message tells you that an update is available for your machine. You see it, but you are in the middle of something important. You close the window and delay the update. This can happen over and over again. Some people, irritated by the notices, turn off the alerts altogether. Now, these automatic alerts are only available on versions of Windows that Microsoft is still actively supporting. So, if you have an older version of Windows, such as XP, Windows 8 or Windows Server 2003, you no longer receive alerts for updates. Either way, there are millions of machines that were vulnerable to attack on Friday. And on Friday, ransomware aptly called WannaCry, wreaked havoc all over the world.

It is believed that the attackers gained access to computers and systems using infected zip files attached to emails. People opened emails and clicked on attachments. These emails did not come from friends and the people clicked on attachments, not knowing what they were opening. Taking advantage of the fact that many organizations store their computer information on servers, making all users interconnected. The WannaCry ransomware, once released by one user, made its way through the interconnected systems and attacked other machines, even those belonging to people who did not click on the infected attachments.

This attack has made many things apparent:

  • Keeping secrets can sometimes go very wrong. The NSA knew that there was a vulnerability in Microsoft Windows. If it was not for the Shadow Brokers leak, Microsoft may not have discovered this vulnerability and they would not have developed a patch to fix it. One can also argue that, if Shadow Brokers had not leaked this information, the hackers may not have known to create WannaCry and none of this would have happened in the first place. I have found, though, that generally speaking, secrets are not kept that way forever.
  • When I wrote about the fake FBI attacks, I stated the importance of keeping your computers up to date. I cannot stress this enough. When the reminders pop up on your machine to update your software, update your software. Install the security fixes. If you don’t want to be disturbed, set up a timetable so that your machine will automatically check for and install updates on a regular basis. Remember, also, to restart your machine on a regular basis. Many installations are not complete without a restart and some updates are triggered by a restart.
  • We live in a time where everyone receives more email than they want to deal with. We run the risk of making careless mistakes, opening up emails and clicking on attachments when we have no idea who sent the email and what is in the attachment. Nowadays, you are almost lucky if the only thing that the attachment does is send out a lot of spam to your friends. More often, click on that attachment can lead to hackers stealing information from you or holding your machine hostage. Sometimes, even when I receive an email, with an attachment, that appears to be from a friend, I will double-check with the friend to make sure that they have sent the email and their account has not been hacked. The extra step may seem tedious but, enough times I have found out that my friend was hacked, so I keep asking when I am suspicious.
  • If your operating system is no longer supported, you should consider getting new software that is. I say this with mixed feelings. Like most people, I hate being forced to buy something when what I already have has been working well for me and when I don’t like the new version. I feel scammed being made to spend that extra money and if the world only contained righteous people I would tell you to keep your software and change it when you are ready. But, we live in a world where people are ready to take advantage of an opportunity to get money out of you. Microsoft stopped providing support for Windows XP in 2014. This ransomware is specifically taking advantage of this fact. It’s a shame, but it is the way it is.
  • Back up, Back up and back up some more. If you are regularly backing up your machine and keeping the backup either in the cloud or on an external drive, you know what you can do when your machine is held for ransom? You can ignore the ransom demand because you have your data saved some place safe. The clock can tick down, the files on your machine can all be delete and, even though it will suck to restore everything, you can do so.

On Monday morning, people are going to go to work and turn on their machines and many machines running Windows XP or that have not been updated in months will be open to attack. Many of those that are attacked will want to pay the ransom because their data has not been backed. Just weeks ago, articles were written about how British hospitals spent nothing on cyber-defense.  On Friday, they could barely function. Maybe they had started having meetings and started discussing taking steps to protect their systems. But, like we all do when that warning popped up, they put it off. I am sure right now they are wishing they had done something to protect themselves because they had to scramble to fix a disaster.

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A Better Mousetrap

IMG_2078Growing up, Saturday was the day that my mother ran errands and, because she tended to attack several items on her to-do list in one car trip, she tended to drag us along with her. At times errands involved going to the grocery shopping and this invariably meant my mother paid the bill by check. Now, writing out a check takes long enough but my mother never rushed the process, and I mean never. She would write out the check amount in numbers and words, pausing to direct the packer not to mix food types in the same bag. She would sign the check slowly, and beautifully and then, just when you thought she was done, she would balance her checkbook. It did not matter how long the line behind her was, she would take her time and complete her process. It did not matter how much grumbling was going on, she would ignore everyone, as she made sure that her numbers were correct.

Last week, I returned from an amazing trip to Zimbabwe, where I was the maid of honor at my sister’s wedding. I love traveling to Zimbabwe for countless reasons; one of these is seeing the changes to the financial systems that I see every time I go back. My last trip to Zimbabwe was a little over a year ago and I wrote about the process I went through in order to get a prepaid phone line. During this trip, I only had to deal with two people and I did not have to travel from one desk to another in order to get things done. I still had to hand over identification but this time, I could hand over the original and the phone company made a copy for me. The system was more computerized and I only needed to deal with one agent but I left with sufficient paperwork for my transaction. The SIM card for my phone line and airtime both had pre-printed serial numbers and I also received one receipt for my transaction, where I bought a line and airtime.

Just about everywhere I went, I was struck by the technological advancements since my last trip. More and more transactions are becoming completely computerized and the changes give me the opportunity to observe whether the advancements have weakened control systems and whether the designs of the new systems took control systems into account. One place where we saw significant changes was with the highway toll system. Last year, most of the toll stations were merely agents standing at a point in the road, with armed guards to make sure that no one tried to fly through the stations without paying. This year, there were built up with automatic booms that let drivers through, after they had paid. These stations had cameras installed in various places and these cameras transmitted images to a central office, as one of the controls to ensure that all vehicles passing through the stations were charged. Just as had happened the year before, every time we drove through a toll station, we received a receipt for our payment. The additional controls, such as the automatic boom and the cameras, added layers of controls without adding time to the process of going through the tollgates.

The challenge, when it comes to the technological advancements, is to ensure that those using them do not pave their cowpaths. This is a concept very well explained by Tom Hood. There is a big risk of using new technologies to do the same things in the same way; instead of using these technologies reimagine processes. It is very easy to dress up the same old processes in a fancy new exterior and convince yourself that you have created a new process. I shall keep taking notes during my future trips, as technological advancements continue to see whether people are paving cowpaths or creating superhighways.

Thankfully for those standing in line behind her, my mother no longer writes checks when she goes shopping. She has found new ways to keep track of her finances that ensure that her numbers are correct but that take less time than writing a check and balancing her checkbook used to. I even had a paper trail for the exhilarating lion walk that I went on at Antelope Park, a lion conservancy just outside Gweru, in Zimbabwe. I had a receipt for my payment and I also signed an indemnity form to prove that I went willingly, just in case the lions got grumpy, smelt my fear or just wanted to play with me with their massive paws!

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You Better Think

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I just spent the last two weeks in Zimbabwe and Mozambique. I was over there to have a wedding and then go on honeymoon. Before I left the United States, I decided that I would get a prepaid line in Zimbabwe, with roaming capabilities in Mozambique. In this way. I would have a way to communicate while traveling. We went in to the phone store to purchase a line and air time and that, in and of itself, was a tale to tell. We came out of the store with almost no idea what we had. After telling the cashier in the phone store what we wanted to use our line for, she suggested that we buy $20 in air time and sent us on our way. We had no idea how much time we could spend on the phone, what the roaming rates would be while we were in Mozambique and we had no clue what was going on with our data. As a long time cellphone user, I was pretty sure that I could figure it all out.

Well, it turns out that sometimes a new system can be more complicated than one can imagine. I realized, pretty quickly, that I would have done well to have received an instruction manual or some basic training. I would have tried to search for information online, except I had no idea how to activate my data. After figuring out how to convert some of my air time minutes into data, I made a call to customer service to receive instructions on how to actually activate data on my phone. After a second call, I actually got data to work but I had no idea how to track my data use, how much data I was using or how much data I had left to use. The data availability was very erratic; sometimes I had it and then, randomly, it would be gone. When I asked a friend, who has recently moved to Zimbabwe, how it all worked he said that he couldn’t understand any of it. So I decided to enjoy my vacation, appreciate any data I did get and not sweat the stretches of time when I had no data at all.

Because we were moving around a lot, we also had very limited access to wi-fi. As a result, we spent a very lo-tech fortnight. Because I could not always get the internet to work, I was never able to Google anything. I was forced to remember what I had learnt about something or to perhaps wonder whether I had learnt it at all. It turns out that the people we spent time with also had a very different relationship with the internet than I have been accustomed to. Not once during the two weeks we were in Southern Africa did a person consult Google during a discussion. Conversations were very interesting – a group of five people could end up with five very different recollections of an event – what happened, who was involved, what the outcome was and what was behind the action. These conversations would be fascinating because as a listener, I would have to decide, all by myself, what to believe. Without access to the convenience of an internet search, I had to think things through and choose whether to be analytical or emotional when coming to some conclusions (or at least how to balance my approach). It was fun and refreshing to give my brain this workout and it also led to some very exciting and, sometimes, very funny conversations.

Though I return to my easy (and, at times, lazy) access to internet information, I hope that I do not forget the lessons of my brain exercise. I really do appreciate the reminder that it is important to unplug at times and take time to listen, think and work things out. Having technology is incredibly useful and beneficial but one must not depend on technology at the expense of processing information and reaching conclusions using our brains. This is a vital thing to remember, especially is this age of big data. Having a lot of data and not knowing how to use it, what questions to ask of it or what it all really means is as useful as not having any information at all – at times it may even be more dangerous.

I am very happy to be able to get data at the touch of a button but I am also glad to be reminded to use my head more, ask questions and consider my possible answers.

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